Passive Voice Teaching: Recent Trends and Effective Strategies



passive voice teaching, EGRA method, task-based learning, cooperative learning, web-based storytelling


This study investigates current practices and useful methods for teaching passive voice. To find effective teaching strategies, a thorough review of the literature produced between 2018 and 2024 was undertaken. Using keywords associated with passive voice instruction, data was gathered from academic sources, and thirty pertinent papers were chosen for examination. The Experience, Generalization, Reinforcement, Application (EGRA) method, task-based learning, cooperative learning, flashcards, and web-based storytelling are just a few of the successful teaching techniques that thematic analysis identified. These strategies improve learning outcomes, comprehension, and student engagement. It was stressed that context-based learning is crucial to knowing when and how to employ passive voice. It has been discovered that technology, especially web-based storytelling, increases student engagement and recall of material. Students' memory and understanding were also enhanced by the Jigsaw method and inductive training. In general, it was discovered that teaching passive voice may be accomplished effectively using a range of teaching techniques, such as active learning and technology integration. To learn more about these strategies' long-term consequences and how they affect different student demographics, more study is required.


Abdul Halik, A. F., & Fouzul Kareema, M. I. (2020). Difficulties faced by the ESL learners in

using English passive voice in written communication: A study based on the Students of NAITA, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. KALAM - International Research Journal, 13(3), 51-59.

Alda Raudatul, J. A. N. N. A. H. (2023). Problems in writing passive voice: A case study in the

EFL classes. [Doctoral dissertation], Universitas Mataram.

Aliakbari, M., & Jamalvandi, B. (2010). The impact of role play on fostering EFL learners'

speaking Ability: A task-based approach. Journal of Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics, 14(1), 15-29.

Amadi, S. C. (2018). Learning the English passive voice: Difficulties, learning strategies of Igbo

ESL learners and pedagogical implications. International Journal of English and Literature, 9(5), 50-62.

An, Y., & Mindrila, D. (2020). Strategies and tools used for learner-centered instruction.

International Journal of Technology in Education and Science, 4(2), 133-143.

Batubara, M. H., & Mahardhika, M. G. S. (2020). An analysis on students’ difficulties in changing

active to passive voice. Journal As-Salam, 4(1), 61-78.

Benson, P. (2013). Teaching and researching: Autonomy in language learning. Routledge.

Bielak, J., & Pawlak, M. (2013). Applying cognitive grammar in the foreign language

classroom: Teaching English tense and aspect. Heidelberg: Springer.

Braga, M., Checchi, D., & Meschi, E. (2013). Educational policies in a long-run perspective.

Economic Policy, 28(73), 45-100.

Cameron, D. (2001). Working with spoken discourse: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Castleberry, A., & Nolen, A. (2018). Thematic analysis of qualitative research data: Is it as easy

as it sounds? Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(6), 807-815.

Charles, M. (2013). Active and passive voice in research articles: An interdisciplinary study.

International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 18(3), 279-318.

Crosthwaite, P., & Steeples, B. (2022). Data-driven learning with younger learners: Exploring

corpus-assisted development of the passive voice for science writing with female secondary school students. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1-48.

Darsih, E. (2018). Learner-centered teaching: What makes it effective. Indonesian EFL Journal,

(1), 33-42.

De Boer, H., Donker, A. S., Kostons, D. D., & Van der Werf, G. P. (2018). Long-term effects of

metacognitive strategy instruction on student academic performance: A meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 24, 98-115.

De Graaff, R., & Housen, A. (2009). Investigating the effects and effectiveness of L2 instruction.

In M. H. Long, & C. J. Doughty (Eds.), The handbook of language teaching (pp. 726-755). Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Diyata, F. (2022). Teaching passive voice by using task-based learning with integrated steps in a

procedural form. JEPAL: Journal of English Pedagogy and Applied Linguistics, 3(1), 45-55.

Doughty, C. J. (2003). Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation, and enhancement. In C. J.

Doughty, & M. H. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 256-310). Oxford: Blackwell.

Fitria, T. N., & Muliasari, D. (2022). Analysis of students’ ability and their difficulties in

identifying passive voice. Journal of English Education, 7(1), 46-54.

Errington, E. P. (2008). Exploring real-world scenarios as vehicles for authentic learning.

International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, 3, 1-5.

Fletcher, J. D. (2003). Evidence for learning from technology-assisted instruction. In H. F.

O'Neil, Jr. & R. S. Perez (Eds.), Technology applications in education: A learning view (pp. 79–99). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Geeraerts, D. (2006). A rough guide to Cognitive Linguistics. In D. Geeraerts,

R. Dirven, J. R. Taylor, & R. W. Langacker (Eds.), Cognitive Linguistics: Basic

Readings (pp. 1-28). Berlin, New York: De Gruyter Mouton.

Hadi, S. (2023). The effectiveness of jigsaw technique in teaching passive voice. Journal Corner

of Education, Linguistics, and Literature, 3(2), 121-133.

Halim, S. (2020). The efficacy of using passive voice cards in teaching grammar. Journal on

English Language Teaching and Learning Linguistics and Literature, 8(2), 474-483.

Halliday, M. A., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (2013). An Introduction to Functional Grammar.


Haron, M. Z., Othman, M. K. H., & Awang, M. I. (2019). Technology-assisted teaching aids in

teaching and learning: Evidence from the Malaysian Tahfiz Ulul Albab Model (TMUA). International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, 8(12), 4401-4404.

Healey, D. (2016). Language learning and technology: Past, present and future. In F. Farr, & L.

Murray (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of language learning and technology (pp. 9-23). Routledge.

Islamy, S. P., & Kaniadewi, N. (2022). A review of teaching passive voice strategy. EPIGRAM

(e-Journal), 19(2), 183-197.

Jalilifar, A., & Shooshtari, Z. G. (2011). Active or passive: That is the question. BRAIN: Broad

Research in Artificial Intelligence and Neuroscience, 2(4), 29-38.

Jannah, A. R., Wilian, S., Zamzam, A., Arafiq, A., & Arfah, H. (2023). Problems in writing

passive voice: A case study in the EFL classes. Journal Ilmiah Profesi Pendidikan, 8(4), 2644–2651.

Johnson, E. O., Charchanti, A. V., & Troupis, T. G. (2012). Modernization of an anatomy class:

From conceptualization to implementation. A case for integrated multimodal–multidisciplinary teaching. Anatomical Sciences Education, 5(6), 354-366.

Julianita, G. M., Mariani, N., & Amelia, R. (2021). Analyzing EFL students’ ability in identifying

passive voice. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Education, Language, Literature, and Arts (ICELLA, [89-98]).

Lubis, A. (2021). The students difficulties in understanding of active to passive voice at X Tm

SMKN 2 Panyabungan. The Explora, 7(1), 1-9.

Lubis, M. Y. A., Miranti, R., & Lubis, Y. (2024). Passive voice and active voice in sentence

structure. Journal of Psychology, Counseling and Education, 2(1), 59-64.

Luo, H. (2018)., Passive voice usage in undergraduate STEM textbooks. [PhD Dissertation],

University of Central Florida.

Mallipa, I., & Murianty, R. (2020). Developing teaching instructions through the practice of lesson

study in teaching passive voice. Linguistic, English Education and Art (LEEA) Journal, 3(2), 385-399.

Moore, K. D. (2014). Effective instructional strategies: From theory to practice. Sage


Muziatun, M., Malabar, F., & Mustapa, L. (2022). Analyzing students' passive voice difficulties.

Indonesian EFL Journal, 8(2), 155-164.

Nassaji, H., & Fotos, S. S. (2011). Teaching grammar in second language classrooms:

Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative context. Routledge.

Nourdad, N., & Aghayi, E. T. (2014). Focus on form in teaching passive voice of different tenses.

Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 98, 1400-1408.

Oshima, A., & Hogue, A. (2007). Introduction to Academic Writing. Pearson Longman.

Pereira, S., Sarmento, J. A., & Fernandes, B. F. (2019). Teaching passive voice sentences through

collaborative learning. ISCE: Journal of Innovative Studies on Character and Education, 3(1), 19-40.

Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching.

Cambridge University Press.

Roy, A., Sumanjari.S (2020). Digital story-telling in the specification of active and passive

voice from high school English language education. The 4th International Conference on Innovative Research in Education.

Saeidi, M., & Sahebkheir, F. (2011). The application of passive voice in the

Iranian EFL learners' writings. English Language Teaching, 4(1), 208-213.

Safarova, L. (2023). The dynamics of active and passive voice in English grammar. Norwegian

Journal of Development of the International Science, 121, 84- 89.

Shabani, K., Bakhshi, E. M., & Samarghandi, S. (2016). The effect of textual enhancement

through technology on the intake of active and passive voice and belief about grammar instruction. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 3(2)., 1563-1578.

Trajkovska, V. (2022). Authentic texts as a resource for designing passive voice exercises for

students of English for law enforcement. International Scientific Conference 45 Years Higher Education in the Area of Security – Educational Challenges and Security Perspectives [3(6), 39-48].

Unver, M. M. (2017). On voice in English: An awareness raising attempt on passive voice.

European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 2(3), 17-29.

Venkatesan, S. (2023). Utilization of media skills and technology use among students and

educators in the state of New York. Neuroquantology, 21(5), 111-124.

Yannuar, N., Shitadevi, I. A., Basthomi, Y., & Widiati, U. (2014). Active and passive voice

constructions by Indonesian student writers. Theory & Practice in Language Studies, 4(7), 1400-1408.

Zaenap, S. (2019). The use of EGRA technique in teaching passive voice for EFL classroom.

VELES: Voices of English Language Education Society, 3(1), 24-30.

Zohrabi, M., Torabi, M. A., & Baybourdiani, P. (2012). Teacher-centered and/or student

centered learning: English language in Iran. English Language and Literature Studies, 2(3), 18-30.

Zulfikar, K., Sutapa, R., & Sutapa, Y. G. (2019). The effectiveness of inductive teaching

method in teaching passive voice for high school students. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Pembelajaran Khatulistiwa, 8(2). pdpb/article/view/31371



How to Cite

Eragamreddy, N. (2024). Passive Voice Teaching: Recent Trends and Effective Strategies. Studies in Humanities and Education, 5(1), 44–63.