Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry <p>Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry(JCNB) is a peer reviewed international journal published by Saba Publishing. The aim of the journal is to provide a venue for researchers and practitioners to share theories, views, research results and classroom practices in areas of Chemistry , Nutritional , Biochemistry presents experimental nutrition research as it relates to: biochemistry, molecular biology, toxicology, or physiology. Articles are published in English.</p> <p><strong>Editor in Chief: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dr. Ammar Mohammed Hamood AL-Farga</a></strong><br /><strong>ISSN (online)</strong>:<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"> 2709-5932</a><br /><strong>Frequency:</strong> Semiannual</p> SABA Publishing en-US Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2709-5932 Chemical Composition Study of Three Varieties of Date seeds (Iraqi, Saudi and Yemeni) and their Utilization as caffeine-free coffee alternative <p>The study aimed to investigate the chemical composition of three widely available types of date seed in the Yemeni market (Iraqi, Saudi, and Yemeni) and their potential use as caffeine-free coffee alternative.</p> <p> Quantitative estimation was conducted for moisture, ash, protein, fiber, fat, carbohydrates, and caffeine, along with a descriptive estimation for alkaloids, tannins, and resins. Date seed coffee was prepared and sensory evaluation was performed by trained panelists.</p> <p>The results showed that Yemeni date seeds had the highest extraction Rate on average (30%), while Saudi date seeds had higher moisture, protein, fat, and fiber contents on average (8.997, 6.897, 11.167, and 16.333%, respectively).</p> <p>Yemeni date seeds contained the highest carbohydrate content on average (58.290%). All tested date seeds were caffeine-free, while the chemical composition for Yemeni coffee were 7, 0.9, 13.9, 14.4, 12.8, 4.1, and 1.5% for moisture, ash, protein, fat, fiber, carbohydrates, and caffeine, respectively. Descriptive estimation results showed the absence of alkaloids in all date seeds and coffee samples, with the presence of both tannins and resins. For sensory evaluation indicated high values for all attributes of date seeds coffee alternative, with Saudi date seeds coffee outperforming other types, suggesting its potential use as a caffeine-free coffee alternative and its associated health benefits<strong>.</strong></p> Galal Ahmed Al-Askari Mushtaq Faisal Al-Afour Ismaeel Mohammed AL-Monsef Abdullah Saleh AAl-Sanabani Ali Mansour Sinnan Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 1 11 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.1079 Production of Conjugated Linoleic Acid from Safflower Oil as Precursor by Probiotic Cultures <p>Four potentially probiotic strains of <em>lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium</em> were evaluated for their ability to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) from safflower oil in vitro. All the four strains were found to be capable of converting linoleic acid to CLA when using lipolysed safflower oil as a precursor for free linoleic acid. Production of CLA by four probiotics bacterial strains increases in presence 0.6% lipolysed safflower oil as maximum level for 48 h at 37°C and <em>Lb. plantartum</em> has higher CLA content in MRS broth media than <em>Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei </em>and<em> B. lactis</em>. Also, Supplementation with amounts higher than 0.6% lipolysed safflower oil reduced the CLA content. The research on the ability of converting CLA of probiotics cultures could be basis for the future research and development of fermented dairy products.</p> Mohamed Abouelwafa Hosny Ahmed Mohamed El-Safty Rafik Khalil Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 12 24 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.1071 Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Gluten-free Cupcakes Produced with Pearl Millet Flour and Cactus Mucilage Powder as a New Natural Hydrocolloid <p>This study aimed to produce functional gluten-free cupcakes from pearl millet flour (PMF), rice flour (RF) and cactus mucilage powder (CMP) as a natural hydrocolloid. Rice flour was mixed with pearl millet flour at percentage of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (as control). Physicochemical, sensory evaluation and texture profile (TPA) characteristics of gluten-free cupcakes were performed. Results revealed that free-gluten cupcakes produced with pearl millet flour had a higher content of protein, ash, fat, and fiber than control (100% RF). Additionally, the sensory characteristics of cupcakes containing 50 % RF+ 50% PMF + 2% CMP were the most acceptable formulae among the investigated treatments. TPA results showed that the substitution with PMF decreased firmness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, and resilience of all resultant cupcake samples than control. Therefore, we recommend using pearl millet flour and cactus mucilage as a functional ingredient in the manufacturing of gluten-free bakery products.</p> Mohamed Salem Fatma El-Zayet Ahmed Rayan Adel Shatta Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 25 36 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.1090 Emerging Pharmaceutical Contaminants- Diclofenac: A Review <p>Numerous studies on environmental remediation have been focused on water pollution by pharmaceuticals. Diclofenac (DCF) is regarded as an anti-inflammatory drug which is used globally. For more than 10 years now, intensive studies have shown the distribution of diclofenac in various environmental media at different concentrations worldwide. In this case, diclofenac behaviour in different environmental matrices especially soil and water were addressed, giving credence to modem remediation techniques. Toxicity issues as it concerns diclofenac in both soil and water as well as exposure to diclofenac metabolites via consumption and abiotic degradation route has also been discussed. Possible Mechanisms of dikclofenac interactions with other contaminants, ranging from interactions with metals, other inorganic and organic matter, and with other emerging contaminants and diclofenac metabolites have been duly discussed.</p> Kelechi Onwuka Jude igwe Chinonso F. Aaron Chidi .I. Nosiri Okechukwu C. Atasie Chinedu Aguwamba Nwabekee I Uzoamaka Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 37 55 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.837 Chrysophyllum albidum (African star apple) Fruit-Skin Attenuates Hyperglycemia-Mediated Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats <p>Diabetes mellitus, a chronic metabolic disturbance characterized by hyperglycemia has become a health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress performs a key role in diabetic complications. The fruit-skin of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> (African star apple) has been reported to have anti-hyperglycemic, hypolipidemic and <em>in vitro</em> antioxidant properties, but its effect on oxidative damage in diabetic animals has not been well investigated. This study investigated the effect of <em>Chrysophyllum albidum</em> fruit-skin (CAFS) in mitigating hyperglycemia induced oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Oxidative stress markers included superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), lipidperoxidation status using malondialdehyde and non-enzymatic antioxidants in serum, hepatic and pancreatic tissues. Non-diabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were compared after&nbsp;&nbsp; 4 weeks of treatment. The diabetic untreated group showed significant (<em>p</em>&lt; 0.05) elevation of malondialdehyde and depression of non-enzymatic antioxidants levels, while suppressing SOD and CAT activities in serum, hepatic and pancreatic tissues when compared to normal rats. CAFS supplemented diet treatment ameliorated these metabolic disturbances and increased the activities of hepatic and pancreatic SOD from 0.28±0.25 to 0.61±0.13 Unit/mg protein and 0.08±0.01 to 0.15±0.01 Unit/mg protein respectively and CAT from 0.21±0.06 to 0.81±0.17 Unit/mg protein and 0.07±0.01 to 0.50±0.15 Unit/mg protein respectively.&nbsp; The findings suggest that CAFS treatment in diabetic rats exerts a protective effect via attenuation of oxidative stress mediated by hyperglycemia and improves the antioxidant status.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> HAOLAT IBRAHIM ODUTOLA OSILESI KUNLE ORODELE EMMANUEL OLAGOKE MUTOLIB ASHIYANBI Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 56 83 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.1061 Nutritional Composition of Some Selected Commercial Juice Made in Nigeria <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Nutrient-fortified food play a crucial role in addressing nutritional deficiencies among infants and children, making them more appealing for consumption. Research focuses on baby foods, particularly reconstituted juice drink, which serve as significant sources of essential minerals and vitamins. However, the nutrient composition of these products varies, leading to differences in quality. The objective of this study is to assess the disparities in the nutritional content of various children's juice drink available in the Nigerian market.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Proximate analysis was carried out according to the standard procedure of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to evaluate the nutritional composition of the selected juice drink. Minerals content were determined using Atomic Absorption and Flame Spectroscopy Techniques. The determination of the Vitamin A content in the samples was conducted following a modified Spectrophotometric Method. For Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C), the Vitamin C content in the samples was assessed utilizing a Spectrometric Method coupled with 2,4 Dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) procedures.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Examination of the proximate and mineral analyses of ten chosen fruit juice brands revealed notable variations. Capri sonne exhibited the highest moisture content at 94.2%, while Hollandia Yogurt has the lowest at 81.3%. Chapman, Nutri Milk, and Viju Apple Flavor Milk shared the highest ash content at 0.5%, whereas Hollandia Malt, Piko Orange, and Piko Strawberry displayed the lowest at 0.01%. Nestle Malt boasted the highest crude protein concentration at 4.38%, with Capri sonne recorded the lowest at 0.18%. Hollandia Yogurt and Hollandia Malt demonstrated the highest crude fiber content, while Vitavite Multivi, Piko Orange, and Piko Strawberry showed the lowest. Regarding total carbohydrates, Hollandia Yogurt topped the list at 14.6%, while Vitavite Multivi ranked lowest at 6.57%. Nestle Millo contained the highest vitamin C content at 25.7%, whereas Piko Strawberry has the lowest at 3.82%. Caprosonne registered the highest vitamin A content at 0.6%. In terms of mineral analysis, Hollandia Yogurt exhibited the highest sodium percentage at 22.6mg/g, while Nestle led in calcium, iron, and magnesium content at 120.4mg/g, 1.7mg/g, and 25.5mg/g, respectively. It can therefore be inferred from the outcome of this study that, Milo Nestle is the best drink for children due to its higher protein, carbohydrate, vitamins (A and C) and minerals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na) contents, followed by Hollandia Malt as compared to other juice studied.</p> <p> </p> Raphael Jegede Mohammed Salisu Suleiman Dorathy Agar Ogohi Godwin Audu Abdulrahman Itopa Suleiman Isaac Shaibu Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Chemistry and Nutritional Biochemistry 2024-03-29 2024-03-29 5 1 84 90 10.48185/jcnb.v5i1.1060